Gynaecology & Obstetrics

Headed By: Dr. Divya Agarwal - M.B.B.S., M.S

Gynaecology, study of women’s diseases, with special emphasis on the female reproductive organs. Areas of special concentration for gynecologists include disorders of the uterus, or womb, the organ where an unborn fetus develops; ovaries, the organs that produce ova, or eggs, which are the female sex cells; fallopian tubes, the channels connecting the uterus and ovaries; cervix, the organ that connects the vagina and uterus; vagina, the canal between the cervix and vulva, or external female organs; and breasts. For a more detailed discussion of the female reproductive organs, see Reproductive System or Human Sexuality.
Gynecologists are physicians who have completed advanced training in female reproductive disorders, typically a four-year program that encompasses the field of obstetrics (the medical specialty concerned with pregnancy and childbirth) as well as Gynaecology. Gynecologists perform routine checkups that include such tests as Pap smears and breast exams to help detect disorders of the female reproductive system. They perform a variety of surgical procedures on the female reproductive system. In addition, gynecologists often serve as the primary care physician for many of their patients. If they are licensed in obstetrics, they may also deliver babies.
Obstetrics, branch of medicine that specializes in caring for women during pregnancy, labor, and immediately following childbirth.  Obstetricians are commonly also certified in gynecology, to provide care for a wide range of problems involving the reproductive system. Obstetricians with special training in high-risk pregnancy are referred to as maternal-fetal medicine specialists or perinatologists. Many physicians in family practice include obstetrics and some gynecologic surgery in their practices.
Obstetrical care ideally begins with the counseling of a woman who is either planning a pregnancy or at risk for an unplanned pregnancy. Preconception counseling may include assessment of lifestyle, including issues such as diet, exercise, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, and ways of dealing with stress; recommendation of vitamins; administration of necessary vaccinations; and general advice about maintaining healthy habits. Throughout a pregnancy a woman may schedule eight to ten or more visits to her obstetrician, during which tests are performed, such as blood typing—in preparation for possible blood transfusion, and to determine if there are incompatibilities between the mother’s and baby’s blood—and screening for infectious diseases. Specialized tests to monitor the health of the fetus may be recommended, including ultrasound to visualize the fetus, and genetic testing to learn the risk for genetic diseases such as Down syndrome.